Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, Founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang I Gorgasali, where the First Congress of Caucasus Zionists was held in. Tbilisi has a Jewish population of about 10,000 out of a general population of 1.5 million.
TBILISI GREAT SYNAGOGUE
The Great Synagogue is located in the old historical district of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. The building, also known as the Georgian Synagogue, was built from 1895 to 1903 by Georgian Jews from Akhaltsikhe, who migrated to Tbilisi in the late 19th century, this the synagogue is also called "Synagogue of the People of Akhaltsikhe". The synagogue was renovated in the years 2011-2012. The Synagogue condition is fair and active. Its construction material is brick, its architectural significance is artistic decoration and there are paintings in the prayer hall. Today, the Great Synagogue of Tbilisi is one of the most important tourist attractions in the city. As it turns out, the synagogue has more than dozens of visitors daily, mainly tourists from Israel.
The Ashkenazi Synagogue in Tbilisi was built by the Jews of Tskhinvali in the 1910s. It is also named Beit Rachel. This is an active synagogue, which is located in the old Tbilisi historical district. The Ashkenazi Synagogue (Beit Knesset) had been on the verge of collapse for a long time. Jews living in Tbilisi and Moscow donated money to restore the synagogue, and it was renovated in 2007. The building condition is fair and the construction material is brick.
DAVID BAAZOV MUSEUM OF HISTORY OF THE JEWS OF GEORGIA AND GEORGIAN-JEWISH RELATIONS
The David Baazov Museum of History of Jews of Georgia is a principal museum of the Jewish history and culture in Tbilisi, Georgia. It was established in 1933, under the title 'Jewish Historic-Ethnographic Museum’. The museum is located at 3 Anton Catholicos St.,Tbilisi. The museum has many exhibits and rarities - archeological, ethnographic, historical, epigraphic, manuscript, printed, artistic, archives, photographs, etc. The museum has published important scientific works for kartvelology/georgian studies. 9 volumes of Hebrew studies.Expeditions are held by the museum in different parts of Georgia, exhibitions, international scientific conferences dedicated to the issues of the history of Georgian Jews, Georgian-Jewish and Georgian-Palestinian relations.
ROYAL DISTRICT THEATRE
This synagogue is located on Abesadze str. Tbilisi, now functioning as Royal District Theatre. In 1887, Jewish community of Tbilisi started collecting funds for constructing a new synagogue on the land of the existing one. The construction process started in 1903. The synagogue was solemnly opened in 1918, however in 1923 it was closed. In 1928 the Committee for Helping The Neediest Jews started using the building. In 1932, the former synagogue was transformed into Jewish Culture House. The Royal District Theatre has been functioning in this building since 1997. The building has the status of cultural heritage. Despite the fact that, in 2001, the court granted Jewish community co-ownership of the building, the court decision has never been enforced.
The Israeli House NET (NGO) was established in 2013 in Tbilisi and works to achieve solidarity by public diplomacy and enhance the cooperation between Israel and friendly states among them Georgia. One of the important goals is to promote the Jewish Heritage, and present it a bridge between Georgia, Israel and the World Jewry, and also to promote the remembrance of the Holocaust.
At the Israeli House NET, lectures on topics related to Israel and Jewish Culture and Heritage are conducted regularly. Also, meetings, exhibitions, presentations and seminars are organized in the cultural, economic, business, technological or political spheres.
The organization’s Advisory Board includes international representatives: diplomats, leading businessmen, heads of the international organizations, academic staff and public figures.
The initiator of the organization is Itsik Moshe, the president of the Israel-Georgia Chamber of Business and the first representative of the World Jewish Agency “Sokhnut” in 1990-s when the “Great Aliyah" started from the USSR.
Israeli House NET is a member of the European Alliance for Israel (EAI) and The European Association for the Preservation and Promotion of Jewish Culture and Heritage (AEPJ)/Cultural Route certified by the Council of Europe.
Israeli House NET is the official representative of the European Route of Jewish Heritage of the Council of Europe in Georgia.
GEORGIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM
The Georgian National Museum is a union of the country's leading museums. The Georgian National Museum delivers special attention to the study, restoration, conservation and promotion of Jewish collections. Part of the Jewish collections of the Georgian National Museum is presented at the exposition of David Baazov Museum of History of the Jews and Georgian-Jewish Relations. Through the projects implemented over the last decade, it became possible to regulate the collections, prepare exhibitions and publications. Exhibitions of Jewish collections were arranged in various exposition spaces of Georgian National Museum.
GEORGIAN NATIONAL CENTRE OF MANUSCRIPTS
The Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts, located in Tbilisi, Georgia, is a repository of ancient manuscripts, of historical documents and of the private archives of eminent public figures. This center kept the Lailashi Bible. The Lailashi Bible represents a handwriting version of Torah, accompanied with comments and colorful geometrical decorative figures. The jewish manuscript is written on parchment and is the Old Testament with Masoretic text. A paleographic analysis of the manuscript makes it possible to suggest that the manuscript belongs to the X-XI centuries. The Lailashi Bible was found in the village Lailashi, Lechkhumi region in Georgia.
Nowadays, Tbilisi Jews bury their relatives at the Dampalo Graveyard, quite far from the city center and the city’s two functioning synagogues. Dampalo Graveyard is located on the outskirts of Tbilisi Varketili. It is maintained by the city and members of Tbilisi’s Jewish community.
ASHKENAZI GRAVEYARD IN TBILISI
The Jewish Graveyard in Samgori Tbilisi is closed nowadays to new burials. Its activation is connected to the arrival of Ashkenazi Jews in Georgia in the 19th century. Many famous personalities from the Jewish Diaspora, including the grandmother of the former Israeli Premier Minister Ariel Sharon, were buried there.
Mtskheta is the one of the oldest cities of Georgia.
The existence of the Jews in these regions during this period is supported by archaeological evidence showing that Jews lived in Mtskheta, the ancient capital of the East Georgian state of Kartli.
ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF MTSKHETA
The Armazi Bilingual is kept in the Archeological Museum of Mtskheta. The bilingual Greco-Aramaic tombstone inscription commemorating the short-lived Serapita and her noble lineage. It contains an unusual, in its ductus and some of its forms, version of the Aramaic alphabet which came to be known as the "Armazi script" although it can also be found outside Armazi, in other parts of Georgia
Akhaltsikhe is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. It has an old history of Jews in Akhaltsikhe. There are two synagogues and the Jewish graveyard.
GREAT SYNAGOGUE IN AKHALTSIKHE
The Great Synagogue in Akhaltsikhe synagogue was built in 1863. The Synagogue is located in Akhaltsikhe, at 96 Guramishvili street. This Georgian rite synagogue was extensively renovated in 2012 and now features a beautiful interior of painted wood. The community which was Gerogian Jews. This building is built in neo-classical style and is made of stone.Today the building is used as a synagogue, which is part of the Jewish quarter and it has national importance. Partly used as a museum where the portraits of the generations of rabbis who have officiated, it is open in summer, for tourists, mainly Israeli, who come to visit the region.
SMALL SYNAGOGUE IN AKHALTSIKHE
The Akhaltsikhe Synagogue of the Georgian Jews, built in 1905, consists of two large halls. The upper hall which has a women's gallery is sumptuously decorated with geometrical motifs. The spacious lower hall is used by men for daily prayer services and has no women's section. This building is built in neo-classical style and is made of stone. The shrine isn’t active now, it was closed in 1952. In the past, film screenings were held here, years ago there was a library, a house of culture, a billiard room and a boxing hall.The Synagogue is located at Guramishvili street.
JEWISH DISTRICT IN AKHALTSIKHE
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN AKHALTSIKHE
Akhaltsikhe is a multinational area in southern Georgia. The Jewish Graveyard is preserved even though there are practically no Jews left in the town. The Graveyard itself is surrounded by a high stone fence and it is under protection. There are tombs in Akhaltsikhe Graveyard that date back to the seventeenth century.
Batumi is the second largest city of Georgia. A Jewish community was established there in 1878 after the town was incorporated into Russia. In 1889 many of the Jews living there without official authorization (see *Pale of Settlement ) were expelled. According to official statistics there remained 31 Jewish families, and according to unofficial sources about 100 Jewish families. The number, however, again increased rapidly. By 1897 there were 1,179 Jews living in Batumi. One of the oil refineries was owned jointly by the Rothschild family and Jewish investors in Russia. The Jewish population numbered 3,700 in 1923 (6.1% of the total population) and 1,778 in 1939 (2,54% of the total population).
At the beginning of the 20th century, with the permission of the Emperor Nicholas II of Russia Construction of the “Ashkenazi” stone synagogue started, Which was completed in 1904 under the guidance of architect Semion Vulkovich. It was analogous to the synagogues of Amsterdam and The Hague. During the Soviet era, the building was used for various purposes. In 1993, the synagogue was again handed over to the Jewish Diaspora. Jews in Batumi appeared mainly after the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Currently, about 70 Jews live there. In the synagogue, Jews mostly go on Saturdays and holidays. The Batumi Synagogue is also frequently visited by tourist groups who come from Israel.
BATUMI OLD SYNAGOGUE
The synagogue was built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, has been abandoned for several years and it is on the verge of collapse. The building collapsed in Batumi, 9 March Street, in 2015. In the same year, the building was granted the status of a cultural heritage monument.
HOUSE OF JEWISH BUSINESSMAN
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN BATUMI
The Jewish Graveyard in Batumi is located in the Beenze district, next to Georgian cemeteries. It has been around for a century and a half and it is still active nowadays. Some of the graves are well maintained.
Kutaisi is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city. Jews lived mainly in the north-east of the city – Kutaisi, on the left bank of the river Rioni. This place was called street Shaumyani. This area was settled more compact by Jews than the other ones. As time passed, most of the Jews left Kutaisi for their historic homeland. A small number of the remaining Jewish families do not live so compact, and you can rarely hear that particular speech characterizing Georgian Jews. But it can be heard in the speech of Georgians who continue to live on the street Shaumyani and it will still be heard for many years in this area.
GREAT SYNAGOGUE IN KUTAISI
The Synagogue is located in Kutaisi, one of the most ancient cities in the world and the third-most populous city in Georgia. The Synagogue was built in 1886 and nowadays it is active and its condition is fair. The community of the Synagogue was Georgian Jews. The building is located at 8 Boris Gaponov St, its style is Neo-Romanesque and its construction material is stone and there are paintings in the interior.
SECOND SYNAGOGUE IN KUTAISI
The second synagogue in Kutaisi was built in 1912 and is surrounded by ancillary buildings. Hebrew was taught here and various Jewish rituals were performed. There was also a bakery where “Matsa” was baked. The Jews of Kutaisi made a great contribution to the development of the city.
Nowadays it is not active and its condition is fair. The community of the Synagogue was Georgian Jews. The Synagogue is located in 8 Boris Gaponov St..
UPPER (MTSVANEKVAVILA) SYNAGOGUE IN KUTAISI
The Synagogue is located in Kutaisi, one of the most ancient cities in the world and the third-most populous city in Georgia. The Synagogue was built at the middle of the 19th century and nowadays it is not active and its condition is fair. The community of the Synagogue was Georgian Jews. The Synagogue is located in 57-59 Boris Gaponov St.. Its style is Neo-Romanesque and its construction material is stone and there are decorations of paintings in the interior.
JEWISH DISTRICT IN KUTAISI
SAPICHKHIA JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN KUTAISI
The Jewish Graveyard in Kutaisi was opened in 1895, although the oldest tombstones date to the early 20th century. The weather and time have left their mark on the tombstones, the inscriptions on them have disappeared and only a specific trail allows visitors not to set foot on the graves.
Lailashi is a village in Georgia, in Racha Lechkhumi and Svaneti. Lailashi has long been known by the Georgian Jews living there according to historians in the beginning of the twentieth century, there lived more than 1,200 grown-up Jews.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN LAILASHI
The Lailashi Synagogue was built in the 1860s and was active until the 1970s. The
community of the Synagogue Georgian Jews. The Synagogue construction material is stone. Presently the Synagogue is abandoned. The Synagogue was used as a regional Synagogue, and the condition of building fabric is poor. Lailashi Synagogue kept the Lailashi Bible from the 10th century.
There were two Jewish graveyards in Lailashi, but only one remains active nowadays. Jewish Graveyard, which is 100 years old, is located between the village of Ghu and Lailashi. At present, the cemetery is not fenced, but well maintained. The Jewish inscriptions on the tombstones are readable. The cemetery has not been active since 1975, but several Jews were buried here from Kutaisi in the 1980s.
Kareli is a town in Shida Kartli, Georgia.
There you can find Kareli Synagogue. It was built in XIX century and the Jewish graveyard.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN KARELI
Kareli Synagogue was built in the 19th century. Located in 9 Ierusalim St. The synagogue was reconstructed in 1990. The synagogue construction material is brick. Today the synagogue is not active.
The Jewish Graveyard in Kareli dates back to the 19th century. The Graveyard was active until the second half of the 20th century, before the beginning of Alia, the Jewish immigration to Israel. Today, the cemetery has no caregiver and it is abandoned.
Lagodekhi lies in the heart of Georgian wine country. Lagodekhi is renowned for its natural beauty, nearby waterfalls and most notably the Lagodekhi Nature Reserve. There you can find Jewish graveyard.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN GORI
Gori is a city in eastern Georgia, which serves as the regional capital of Shida Kartli and the center of the homonymous administrative district. The Synagogue is located at 25 K.Kasteli Street. The Gori Synagogue was established in 1936, it is not active. Its construction material is brick. Jewish people lived in Gori for centuries.
The Jewish Cemetery in Gori is located on the Kvernaki Range, this is a common cemetery where some Jewish graves are located. In the end of the 20th century, after the immigration of Jews to Israel, the cemetery is no longer active, but well maintained. Hebrew inscriptions on the tombs are readable. Jews often come from Israel to visit the graves of their ancestors.
Khashuri is a town in the central part of Georgia and is the 9th largest settlement in Georgia.
There is Surami Synagogue – located in Surami, so called Jewish's suburb and the Jewish graveyard.
JEWISH DISTRICT IN SURAMI
Surami Synagogue located in the Jewish district, on the left bank of the Suramula River. The synagogue was built in 1915. The synagogue is currently open and it has Haham and Gabai. It serves the local community.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN SURAMI
The Jewish Graveyard in Surami is very old and it is located on the opposite side of Surami Fortress on Grigol Surameli Street. The graveyard is currently active, fenced, some of the inscriptions on the tombstones are readable. The cemetery is taken care of by local Georgian and local Jews. In addition, Georgian Jews from Israel are financing the maintenance of their ancestors' graves.
Atskuri is a Georgian feudal fortress on the right bank of the Mtkvari River, approximately 30 kilometres from Borjomi, in the Samtskhe-Javakheti region. There you can find Jewish Graveyard fragments in Atskuri.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD PRAGMENTS IN ATSKURI
The Jewish Graveyard in Atskuri is preserved and located on the banks of the Mtkvari. The cemetery was fenced in 1957 by Jews from Akhaltsikhe. The cemetery is no longer active, but it is maintained by local Georgian Jew. Jews rarely come from Israel to visit the graves of their ancestors.
Oni is a town in Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti region, Georgia.
In old times there lived a lot of Jews families. Despite a post-Soviet tendency towards migration, Oni still retains a small number of Jewish families - remnants of once powerful and large historic Jewish community.
The synagogue was built in 1895 in an eclectic style. Which is located in Oni, at 53 Vakhtang VI Street, It is Georgia’s third largest synagogue after the Great Synagogue of Tbilisi and the synagogue of Kutaisi. This is the oldest functioning synagogue in Georgia. The synagogue was renovated in 1990. Its style is Historicism Neo-Moorish, the construction material is stone, it is in fair condition. It has the status of Culture Monument and its significance rating is national.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN ONI
There are two graveyards in Oni. One of them is located at the end of Baazov Street in Oni and the other is an older cemetery, which is located a little further away, and it is covered with plants that it is no longer even visible. The Jewish Graveyard is also interesting since it is an additional historical source for studying the history of the Jews living in Oni.
Sachkhere is a town at the northern edge of the Imereti Province in western Georgia. It is the center of the Sachkhere Municipality.
There you can find not active synagogue and the Jewish graveyard.
Sachkhere Synagogue was built in the 19th century and closed in 1990. The synagogue is located at 167 Sovetskaia Street. Stone material is used for construction, its community is Georgian Jews. The ancient synagogue in Sachkhere is currently ruined and not active.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN SACHKHERE
There are three Jewish Graveyards in Sachkhere, two of them are relatively old. One was active until the repatriation of Jews in the 90s. According to the legend, Jews moved to this region from Western Georgia, Kartli, in the late Middle Ages. There are still several districts called “Uriata districts”.
The oldest cemetery is located on the road near the village of Zeda Skhvitori, Todadze Fortress. It was probably opened in the 19th century. Remains of tombstones with Jewish inscriptions have survived. The cemetery is currently closed and partly well maintained.
The second, relatively new cemetery is in the city of Sachkhere, in the Islar district, near Stalini Street. It is fenced and well-groomed. The cemetery was active until the 90s before the Jews immigrated to Israel. People often come from Israel to visit the graves of their ancestors.
The third small Jewish graveyard in the district is located on the slope of Todadze Fortress. Nowadays, the cemetery was closed due to landslides. It is currently fenced. Jewish inscriptions can be seen on the tombstones.
Vani is a town in Imereti region of western Georgia.
In the town is a Synagogue, that was built in XIX century and the Jewish graveyard.
Vani Synagogue is located in Imereti region, Vani municipality which was built in the 19th century and it is one of the top three Imereti synagogues due to its interior and architecture. It has the status of Culture Monument and its significance rating is national.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN VANI
The Jewish Graveyard in Vani was opened in the 19th century and is located on Otar Lortkipanidze Street. The cemetery is well maintained and Jewish inscriptions are readable. The cemetery is no longer active. Jews from Israel often visit Vani to see the graves of their ancestors.
Kulashi is a small tow in Imereti.
The town had formerly been a home to one of the largest Georgian Jewish community, whose size has significantly decreased due to several waves of Jewish expatriation to Israel.
KULASHI. OLD ASSEMBLY BUILDING
KULASHI SECOND SYNAGOGUE
The oldest wooden synagogue in Kulashi is about 200 years old (18th century). It was restored a few years ago. Today any visitor can see its stunning ornaments and paintings. Today, the synagogue has the status of national importance. It has the status of Culture Monument and its significance rating is national.
The small synagogue could no longer accommodate Jewish believers, that is why a large synagogue was built in 1902. Wood material is used for construction. Every Jewish quarter of Kulashi had its own synagogue before.
JEWISH MUSEUM OF
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN KULASHI
The Jewish Graveyard in Kulashi is located on the opposite side of the Jewish Synagogues. Soviet-era Jewish tombstones of the 70s and 80s seem to repeat the tradition of Georgian tombs in form and style. The inscriptions on the graves are mostly in Hebrew and Georgian. You will rarely meet only Georgian or Hebrew texts. Over time, the shape of the tombstones changed, the oldest were simple stone boulders, and the newer appearance is distinguished by its complexity.
Abasha is a town in western Georgia.
There you can find Abasha Synagogue, that was built in XIX century and the Jewish graveyard in Sujuna.
SYNAGOGUE IN ABASHA
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN SUJUNA
Abasha Synagogue was built in XIX century.
There are two Jewish cemeteries in Sujuna, located side by side, on Ivliko Efremashvili Street. Sure Subelashvili was a last Jew from Sujuna which was buried in one of the cemeteries. Both cemeteries have local caregivers. Relatives from Israel often visit the cemetery and the graves of their ancestors.
Bandza is a village located in the west part of Georgia.
In the second half of 18th century Jewish people started to live in the west part of Georgia. At the beginning of 20th century they built a synagogue in the Jewish district of Bandza. There is also Jewish cemetery near the synagogue. The synagogue is not active today but many Jewish people visit it very often.
SEPIASHVILI SYNAGOGUE IN BANDZA
Bandza is a village in the Samegrelo region, where Georgian Jews lived from the 18th century until the 1970s. In the village the Synagogue was built in the 20th century and nowadays the Synagogue is not active and it has Historical Monument status. Most of the Jews had immigrated to Israel. The Synagogue is located in the Jewish Quarter in the village. The Synagogue style is Neo-Romanesque and the construction material is stone. The Synagogue condition is poor. Significance rating of the Synagogue is regional.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN BANDZA
The Jewish Graveyard in Bandza was opened in the 18th century. Currently it is not active, but well-groomed and fenced. Local residents are supervising the maintenance of the cemetery. People come from Israel to visit the graves of their ancestors from time to time.
Senaki is a town in Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region, western Georgia.
There is a Senaki Synagogue, that was build in 1969 and the Jewish graveyard.
JEWISH GRAVEYARD IN SENAKI
Senaki Synagogue was built at the end of the 19th century and was active until the 1990s. Nowadays the Synagogue is in fair condition but it is not active. The Synagogue was recently renovated in 2014 by Kartu Foundation finance the Bidzina Ivanishvili. The synagogue is located at Peace avenue. The Synagogue construction material is brick. The Synagogue community was 3000 Georgian Jews and it has regional significance rating.
The Jewish Graveyard in Senaki is located in the village of Menji, it is in a good condition, well maintained and fenced. The cemetery is old and therefore it is difficult to read the Hebrew inscriptions on some of the tombstones. Ioseb Mikhelashvili's family is supervising the graveyard's maintenance. Only one fence separates between the Jewish and the Christian cemeteries. Jews often come from Israel to visit the graves of their ancestors.
Poti is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
In the city you can find not active Poti Synagogue, that was built in 1903.
Poti Synagogue was built at the beginning of the 20th century and was active until the 1990s. The Synagogue was recently renovated in 2014 by the Bidzina Ivanishvili Foundation. Nowadays the Synagogue is in fair condition but it is not active. The synagogue is located at Ierusalim St. 9. The Synagogue construction material is brick. The synagogue community was Georgian Jews.
Sukhumi or Sokhumi is a city on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia.
As the 1897 census results indicate, there were also many Ashkenazi Jews in Sukhumi. A synagogue was built in the first decade of the 20th century.
In Soviet times, the Jewish population of Abkhazia increased greatly, but the Sukhumi Jewish community remained the largest in Abkhazia. According to the 1926 census, there were about 1,100 Jews in Abkhazia, most of them Ashkenazi or Georgian. The Jewish community of Sukhumi was officially recognised by Soviet authorities in 1945, at the very end of World War II.
ABKHAZIA SYNAGOGUE (GEORGIA)
A synagogue in Abkhazia was built in the first decade of the 20th century. As of 2009, there are about 150 Jews in Abkhazia, nearly all of them Ashkenazi. The majority of them are elderly, with their average age being 72. The community maintains a synagogue in Sukhumi. Its construction material is brick, both the interior and the exterior are decorated with paintings.
Tskhinval is the capital of South Ossetia, a disputed region in Georgia. It has been recognized as an independent Republic by Russia and three other UN members.
Tskhinvali was known for its sizable Georgian Jewish population, where the community had its own quarter. According to the Soviet censuses of 1926 and 1939 there were about 2000 Jews in South Ossetia, all but a few in Tskhinvali, today only one Jew remains in South Ossetia, a single elderly woman living in Tskhinvali.
TSKHINVALI SYNAGOGUE (GEORGIA)
One of the historical synagogues located in Tskhinvali (Georgia). The Jewish Quarter is part of Old Tskhinvali. It was badly damaged during the 1992 Georgian-Ossetian conflict and the fighting in August 2008. By the beginning of the second half of the 19th century, seven synagogues and religious schools functioned in the Jewish quarter of the city. By the end of the nineteenth century there were six synagogues in Tskhinvali. During the Soviet era, as well as during the recent armed conflicts, the number of Jews in the city decreased significantly. As of December 2008, only one elderly woman remained from the Jewish diaspora in Tskhinvali. At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were more Jews in Tskhinvali than other nationalities.